The two introductory chapters include the definitions of important terms used throughout the Act and the general powers of the central government for the purpose of environmental protection.

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Chapter I —

This chapter includes 2 sections:

Section 1: This section says that the said Act will be called the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and extends to the whole of India. The Act comes into force on a date that the Central Government specifies by way of a notification in the Official Gazette. The Central Government can also appoint different dates for the varied provisions of the Act for the different areas of operation within India. The Act came into force on 19th November 1986.

Section 2: This section contains all the definitions of varied significant terms used throughout…


This chapter talks about the protection of specified plants under this Act. The list of Specified Plants is given under the Schedule VI of this Act.

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Section 17A: This section explains that it is prohibited to pick, uproot, or any other damage done to the specified plants under the Schedules of this Act. Clause (a) says that no person is allowed to wilfully pick, uproot, damage, destroy, acquire, or collect any specified plants. The mentioned actions are prohibited at any forest land and any piece of land or area which is specifically notified by the Central Government.

Clause (b) of this section says that no person is allowed to possess, sell, or offer to sell, or by any method of transfer by giving a gift or…


This article includes the explanation of Sections 201 to 210 under Chapter X (AGENCY) of the Indian Contract Act, 1872. Sections 201 to 210 talk about the revocation of the agency.

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Revocation of authority comes under the termination of the contract of the agency which refers to ending the legal relationship between the principal and the agent. The principal and agent are the parties in a contract of agency, such a contract also has the involvement of a third party. The agent acts on behalf of the principal and is authorized to do so for entering into a contract with the third party. What happens when such a contract of agency is terminated? Let us see the relevant provisions for the same:

Section 201: This section tells us what termination of…


The word reinforce means to provide some support to strengthen something. Reinforcement means trying and strengthening the behavior desired by you

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In terms of psychological learning, reinforcement means applying a situation that will strengthen the behavior of a person from whom we expect the desired behavior to be showcased. Reinforcement is of two types: Positive and Negative.

Positive Reinforcement: It helps one to nourish and amplify behavior with the use of positive reinforcers. Positive reinforcers are further divided into primary reinforcers and secondary reinforcers. The primary reinforcers help one to fulfill basic biological requirements like food. But it can also be the case that primary reinforcers might not be effective all the time. The behaviors of people around us are most…


Perception is a very common word that almost everyone has come across. It means how we infer things, how our brain collocates information which are sensory in nature. This article includes an easier explanation of Gestalt Psychology, ‘Laws of Perceptual Organization.’

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Perception is a very composite procedure in which our nervous system plays a huge role. The process seems to be a very simple one as an individual’s response to a stimulus takes place in the blink of an eye, but is actually a very complicated process that takes place inside our brain. The perceptual process can be divided into three phases:

Phase 1: Receiving the information i.e., stimuli

Phase 2: Selecting the information and then organizing them for interpretation

Phase 3: Behavioural action i.e., response

Every reaction that a living organism gives is because of some stimuli they receive. They…


Chapter III of this act explains the powers and functions of pollution control boards. This article explains the sections under this chapter in a simplified point-wise manner.

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Section 16: Functions of the Central Pollution Control Board —

This section says that the main functions of the Central Pollution Control Board are to ensure the improvement in the quality of air and for the prevention of such air pollution, controlling the conditions and reduction or removal of air pollution in the country.


Products that we use every day are classified into varied categories in economics. The demand for goods keeps varying due to many factors.

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Products are those items that are required by any common man in his day-to-day life making our life more simplified. Some of us are fine with using any type of product as long as it fulfills the job that we wanted to accomplish using that product. Some of us want organic products starting from clothing, vegetables, to everything. Every product existing from pin to the plane has a different type of demand.

Goods can be categorized as inferior, superior, necessity, substitute, and complementary. By using these terms we are not referring to the quality of goods but their demand in…


Both these legal maxims are essential in Tort law. People tend to confuse between the two quite often and this article includes the differences of the same.

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Damnum Sine Injuria —

This maxim translates to damages without injury, it means that damages are done to a person even when there is no violation of any legal right of a person. So, if there is no infringement of your legal right but the damage is done in some way or the other then it may not be a valid ground to sue. To divide and understand the terms, Damnum means “loss or damage related to money, health, property, etc”, Sine means “without”, Injuria means “violation of a legal right which a person has vested upon him /her by…


This article talks about how important it is to hear both sides in any type of conflict. This maxim ensures that justice and fair conduct must be done for both parties. This principle says that every person should be judged fairly by giving a chance to each party to respond to the evidence provided against them.

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Introduction —

Audi Alteram Partem is a Latin phrase that translates to “let the other side be heard as well”. Through this maxim, the notion of Natural Justice was brought into the big picture. Natural Justice is one of the concepts of civil law which says that any judgment given should be fair and rational, it imposes that equality must prevail no matter what the situation. The rule of Audi Alteram Partem is one of the prime concepts of natural justice which says that no one shall be faulted without hearing the complete facts from either of the parties. This…


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The term ‘Caveat Emptor’ originated from Latin which means ‘Buyer Beware’. This principle says that the responsibility of the choice of buying any product or availing any service lies with the buyers themselves. In legal terms under Section 16 of the Sale of Goods Act, 1930, it is clearly defined that, “There is no implied warranty or condition as to the quality or condition or the fitness for any particular purpose of goods supplied under such a contract of sale.” A buyer has to make choices accordingly by scrutinizing well the goods that he is going to buy. If the…

SANDHYA PRABHAKARAN

BBA LL.B. (H) @ Amity Law School, Noida | Author @ Age of Awareness | Author @ The Shadow | Author @ Noteworthy —The Journal Blog | Author @ Perceive More!

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